11th IEEE Integrated STEM Education Conference
Greetings from the General Chairs
Ashutosh Dutta (Johns Hopkins University)
Keynote Speaker 1 — Jayshree Seth
The state of science: On the global perception of science and the need for STEM Advocacy
Jayshree Seth (3M Applied Technology Lab)
Keynote Speaker 2 — Dean Aslam
Creative Functionalized Bricks with Embedded Intelligence (FBEI) for Research-Oriented Provocative STEM and Workforce
Dean Aslam (Michigan State University)
Keynote Speaker 3 — Allison Jackson
Allison Jackson (Allison Jackson Associates)
Poster Session 1
Novel application to improve communication for children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder
Veda R Murthy (Rachel Carson School, USA)
Current solutions to help ASD children socialize, such as speech practising or assisted learning apps, do not reduce this barrier. This is because these apps are not an immediate solution to this barrier, and can be effective only after months of practice by the child. Also, most of these solutions do not work for mute ASD children. Thus, there is a dire need for an individualized solution that interprets an ASD child's emotion.
My solution is the Cognitive Emotion Interpretation App (CEIA). CEIA uses Artificial Intelligence and Emotion Recognition Technology to map an ASD child's facial expressions with an emotion. Through CEIA, people who are not familiar with the ASD child (teachers, extended family) can interpret the child's emotion. When a user (parent, caregiver) downloads the app, they upload photos of the ASD child expressing different emotions and tag the picture with the emotion (e.g. Happy, Sad, Frustrated, Hungry). CEIA then extracts the child's facial features, and the AI algorithm is trained to associate the picture with the emotion. When the user wants to interpret the child's emotion, they take a photo of the child exhibiting the emotion and upload it to CEIA. The AI algorithm will evaluate the photo, and list the emotions that match with the highest accuracy. The user can also upload more photos at a later stage, and the AI algorithm will be retrained to take these new photos into its training dataset. A higher number of photos used in training generally yields a higher recognition accuracy, thus users are encouraged to upload many photos of the child's emotions.
The performance of the app will be evaluated on the following metrics: 1) accuracy of the emotion recognizer, 2) amount of time CEIA takes to recognize the emotion, and 3) CEIA's ease of use. Accuracy will be measured by collecting a sample of a variety of emotions of different users, then measuring if CEIA correctly matched the emotion in the photo. This initial test of accuracy will provide a representative sample of the types of emotions CEIA will need to train on. CEIA will provide a much needed powerful tool to reduce the communication barrier between ASD children and their community.
An Autonomous Driving Simulation Platform as a Virtual HSAVC Competition Environment
Daren Hua (Eleanor Roosevelt High School, USA)
Desalination and Purification of Water using a Solar Powered Hydrogel Multistage
Kevin A Murphy (PRISMS, USA)
To fix problems like this desalination plants are being built. However, the processing of water in these plants is expensive ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 US dollars per acre-foot (of water), 10's to 100's of millions per year in maintenance (3) and billions to build the plants in the first place. The construction of these plants also require infrastructure that developing countries, countries that need clean water the most, simply do not have. The current and mainly used methods of desalination are reverse osmosis and thermal evaporation (2). Thermal desalination isn't commercially viable due to its intensive energy requirement so reverse osmosis plants have become the favored design. However, these plants have many consequences such as toxic waste pollution and killing of local wildlife (2). This industry is crucial to humanity's survival, yet it has so much room for improvement.
Despite humanity's access to a large supply of salt water and polluted fresh water, we are without an efficient and versatile means of making it safe to drink. This study aims to change that. This study aims to design, build and test an easy to use, highly efficient, solar powered and portable water purification method that can be used across the globe. This design will produce water via highly efficient evaporation which will cleanse it of contaminants, including microplastics. In this study a water vaporization enthalpy decreasing chitosan and PVA hydrogel was synthesized and freeze dried repeatedly at -80C to stimulate the expansion of pores within the hydrogel. Additionally, a multistage of these hydrogels was designed and is undergoing construction and testing in tandem with a solar tracking nested paraboloidal solar concentrator. It is hypothesized that this design will have a purification rate of ~10L per hour. The testing of the purification rate will depend on the quality of the prototype and the prototype's heat capacity. This design will also undergo field trials that will test its ease of use and its resistance to damage. The results of this study will determine the feasibility of this design in the real world and whether it can realistically be of benefit to those without clean water.
Comparing Grover's Quantum Search Algorithm with Classical Algorithm on Solving Satisfiability Problem
Runqian Wang (Princeton International School of Math and Science, USA)
"Making a mechanical hand with plastic drinking straws."
Sowmya Natarajan (Whittle School and Studios, USA)
Predictive Analytics in Agriculture using Geospatial Mapping
Sreya Jonnalagadda (Princeton International School of Matematics and Science, USA)
Household 3D Cream Printer for Cake Decoration
Junjing Zeng (Branksome Hall, Canada); Fangzhou Xia (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)
In this poster, we present the design of a Cream 3D Printer for cake decoration at home. The system is designed to create the desired geometry with cream, produce multiple materials/colors and be affordable (hundreds of dollars). For the initial investigation, the prototype design is modified from a Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer. The four primary subsystems include a 3-axis motion system, a material extruder, control algorithms, and an environment control chamber. For the 3-axis motion system, a Creality Ender 3 Pro 3D printer is selected as the basic structure since it is affordable, open-source, and well-supported by its community. The plastic material extruder is replaced by a custom-designed cream extruder. Whipped cream is placed in multiple syringes pushed by the slider on lead screws actuated by stepper motors. Plastic tubes are used to guide the cream from the syringes to the nozzle for ejection. Multiple nozzles or a single nozzle with multi-way valves can be used to select materials from the syringes. For the control system, G-code generated by the slicer from a Solidworks 3D design can be directly used for single material printing. To select between multiple materials, a custom Python program processes the G-code and uses serial communication to interface with the 3D printer Marlin firmware and an Arduino microcontroller. The environmental control chamber helps to cool the printed cream and improve its rigidity so that complex 3D shapes can be printed. The temperature control can be realized with simple commercial refrigeration systems.
At the current stage, the single nozzle cream extrusion capability is completed for the cream 3D printer. Coordinated control of the Ender 3 Pro 3-axis motion system and the custom nozzle has been realized for cream printing. We are currently investigating the effects of temperature and other printing parameters for various potential cream mixtures to identify the configurations suitable for printing. The multi-material printing capability will be developed after identifying suitable materials. With the 3D cream printer, we hope to empower novice baking hobbyist to create amazing cake decoration without years of practice.
Low-cost Portable Ventilator Design for Underdeveloped Regions
Rui Wang (High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China); Fangzhou Xia (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)
In this poster, we present our solution to this challenge by developing a low-cost portable ventilator with three main highlights. First, with $300 target budget, the system can be produced in large quantities for use at temporary mobile cabin hospitals. Second, a patient monitoring system for blood oxygen and electrocardiogram are included with wireless alarms to notify doctors in case of emergency. Third, the exhaled air will be disinfected by specialized filter to reduce the risk of cross infection. The oxygen supply mechanical subsystem design is centered around a BVM compressed using a mechanism driven by a stepper motor. Supplemental oxygen can also be added from portable canisters. The electrical subsystems are primarily based on the Arduino microcontroller platform for both oxygen supply control and sensor signal processing. A custom instrumentation-amplifier-based electrocardiogram circuit and an infrared oximeter sensor are designed to measure patient biometrics. A wireless communication scheme is realized with Bluetooth modules for remote monitoring and can operate as an alarm to the doctor. The assembled prototype is currently capable of supplying oxygen to normal adults with a lung capacity of 6000 ml. It can also conduct simple measurement of heart rate and blood oxygen concentration with remote monitoring. The on-going tasks involve selecting exhaled gas disinfecting filter and processing signals to identify abnormal biometrics. Additional work on improving the portability of the design with battery operation is also planned. We hope this affordable open-source design can help underdeveloped countries overcome the current challenges and be better prepared for future pandemic crisis.
Water purification for human consumption
Sumanth R Moole (Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, USA)
This project is to research, propose, and test the alternatives to the current water purification methods. Two most important objectives are to reduce the cost and make the solution available to the people with minimal infrastructure.
Water is critical for life. Even though two thirds of the earth surface is covered with water, not all of it is suitable for human consumption. United Nations statistics show that 1.2 billion people, or almost one in every five, have water scarcity now and another 1.6 billion people do not have sufficient infrastructure to use the water available to them in rivers and aquifers (https://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml).
Water extracted from rivers, lakes, and aquifers is not suitable for human consumption in most cases without purification. Water purification is expensive and difficult process which requires chemicals like Aluminum Sulfate. These chemicals interact with suspended solid particles in the water in a process called flocculation, which creates heavy particles that sink to the bottom. After flocculation, the clear water is further purified with Chlorine or other anti-microbial chemicals. These chemicals are produced in expensive factories and require transportation over long distances to reach the intended population. The infrastructure required to collect, purify, and distribute the water is very expensive and requires large capital investment for long term. These high costs and requirement of capital investments are further complicated in politically unstable regions of the world. In view of this background, there is a need to find innovative solutions to the water purification to reduce costs, capital investment, and bring the solutions to the needy people.
Research, proposed solution, and results:
This research was focused on how different civilizations in the past dealt with the water purification problem, especially when there were no chemicals, factories, and water supply infrastructure. Through this research of literature, one water purification method used by the Indian farmers since ancient times to purify the water available in the ponds they dug to collect the rain water in each field was selected for testing. The rain water collected in those ponds was contaminated by wild life excrements, mud, algae, etc. and was not suitable for human consumption. The farmers made thin pads from dry straw available in the fields and used them as covers for the pot openings. When the pots are dipped into the pond water, these pads filtered out the large contaminants like algae, fecal matter, and heavy mud. Then these pots of water are taken out, mixed with the powder of Moringa Oleifera (drumstick) seeds, let them settle for about 30 minutes or so depending on the size of the pot. The Moringa Oleifera causes flocculation. In addition, the Moringa Oleifera seems to have anti-microbial properties that kill organic contaminants as well. This project tested the effectiveness of Moringa Oleifera as a flocculant. The results proved that the Moringa Oleifera is as effective as the Aluminum Sulfate. This solution is small scale, easily implementable in remote locations, and cheaper.
Comparison of effectiveness of Machine Learning algorithms for Vehicle Path Prediction
Sumanth R Moole (Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, USA)
Machine Learning algorithms, such as Artificial Neural Networks, have proven to be effective in learning many real world motions of vehicles on the roads and have been extensively used in the autonomous vehicles. Artificial Neural Networks use activation functions to determine the output of a model from the given observations. After training the model with appropriate activation function, the model can be used for predictions. In this process, the activation functions play a crucial role. Selecting the correct activation function is critical to the success of the model.
This project simulates the moving enemy target using a BristleBot (a brush-head fitted with vibrating motor which generates vibrations in the bristles thus propelling the BristleBot) which moves on a flat surface. The motion of the BristleBot is digitized by recording the X-Y coordinates on the path it has taken from the beginning of the run to the end of the run. These runs are repeated and data from multiple runs is stored in a database. Using R Programming language, a neural network training algorithm is simulated where the activation function can be changed (slope-intercept linear function - y = m*x + b - with various slopes and intercepts, quadratic function - y = a*x*x + b*x + c - with various a, b, and c values). The resulting models corresponding to each training session are compared with each other to find their similarity to the paths taken by the BristleBot. The effectiveness of these activation functions is then measured by the similarity score. The trained model (or the activation function) with best similarity score is then selected for predicting the future path of the BristleBot. This model then can be stored on a chip and interceptor vehicles can use it to predict the path and intercept the target.
This project is a simulation to demonstrate the usefulness of the Machine Learning algorithms (especially, Neural Networks) to train the models and store them on a chip that can guide the autonomous drones and missiles where sophisticated radar and satellite equipment are not feasible to guide them more accurately. Small inexpensive drones can be equipped with these chips to predict the paths of moving targets. Swarming with such drones is more economical in intercepting the targets. The simulation results with BristleBot are analyzed and similarity scores are obtained for different functions. These results indicate a reasonable effectiveness of quadratic functions for path prediction. The poster describes the simulation, linear and quadratic functions and their similarity scores, and the further research.
Faraday's Motor and Electromagnetism
Vanisha S Nagali and Saniya Nagali (Allentown High School, USA)
Hans Christian Ã˜rsted had discovered that the addition of electric current flowing through wire, would generate magnetism. AndrÃ©-Marie AmpÃ¨re expanded on this discovery to state that said magnetism would produce a circular magnetic force, developing a cylinder circling the wire. Isolating the magnetic pole would cause the electrically-charged wire to move in a constant, circular motion. Faraday used this knowledge to develop the first electric motor, created in 1821, just a year after electromagnetism was discovered.
The original motor was composed of a wire hanging down into a glass vessel, having a permanent magnet secured to the bottom. Said vessel would also contain an electrified mercury pool; the entire apparatus would be connected to a battery. This mechanism spun the wire in a clockwise movement, revolving about the battery.
One can experiment with the principles of Faraday's motor by building a homopolar motor. A homopolar motor is composed of a AA battery placed atop two neodymium magnets and a copper wire. The copper wire is formed into a coil - having one side touch the positive end of the battery, and the other in contact with one of the magnets. The battery should be within the coil, so the wire can orbit it.
The rotational movement of the copper wire is due to the Lorentz force - the effect of the electromagnetic fields produced through the battery and magnets. Current passes through the positive terminal into the copper wire, which transfers it to the magnet and back to the battery, and thus, the circuit is complete. When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the current - from the copper wire - the Lorentz force is generated, prompting the perpetual circular motion of the coil. During my presentation, I will demonstrate how homopolar motors can be built, using limited materials in a classroom, to demonstrate electromagnetism to students of different age ranges.
Although Faraday's apparatus cannot be directly found in modern technology, the creation transformed many aspects of engineering. Being the first electric motor, it was the foundation for the motors in cars, boats, and other forms of transportation.
Track 2 — Full Papers I
A STEM Program Designed, Developed and Delivered for Upper Primary School Pupils in Singapore
Lee Kar Heng (TBSS Center for Electrical and Electronics Engineering & Cong Ty TNHH Cong Nghe va Giam Sat Radar TBSS, Singapore)
Assessment of Systems Requirements Specification Skills Based on an Industry Body of Knowledge
Andres Fortino (NYU & Autonomous Professional Development, USA); Tanusha Virodula (NYU, USA)
Background - We selected the International Institute of Business Analysts (IIBA) as a vendor-neutral book of knowledge and, knowledge structure for BA (Business Analyst) professionals as well as a well-developed credential in the profession. We used a well-documented process to align a university curriculum to the industry needs, following similar work for project management and data analytics.
Research questions - To align the curriculum to the IIBA BABOK, we asked: (1) whether students graduating from the program had acquired adequate business analysis and systems requirements competencies; and (2) If they had not, how the curriculum be modified to help students acquire those competencies.
Methods - The curriculum was reviewed, and we assured initially that topical coverage of the pertinent course of study aligned adequately with the IIBA BABOK (Business Analysis book of Knowledge) knowledge structure. Results - Using the existing curriculum, we found that a majority of the students were able to pass the assessment based on the IIAB BABOK at the end of their program of study. The exam results were sufficiently granular to allow us to make modifications to the curriculum and course contents to improve the passing rate in future trials.
Using Coding Competitions to Develop STEM Skills in Graduate Education
Andres Fortino (NYU & Autonomous Professional Development, USA); Maria Rivera (NYU, USA)
Background - University credit-bearing education is often streamlined to cover increasing amounts of subject matter knowledge in class. It is not usually possible for faculty to take time from their curriculum to develop basic analytics skills, such as the use of R or Python for business analytics. Extra-curricular skills-building activities are an effective vehicle to develop these skills outside class.
Research questions - Do extra-curricular workshops to learn coding result in successful learning? Would a coding contest after the workshop drive attendance? What are the elements of a successful workshop and coding contest, and what are acceptable metrics and levels of performance for these contests?
Methods - Coding workshops were developed and offered as extra-curricular opportunities for students in a STEM graduate program. After the coding workshops, short-duration coding contests were launched. The goal of the contest was to develop text analytic tools that could be used by the students to advance their academic careers. Attendance in the workshop as a percent of the student body and quality and number of coding contest submissions was a metric of success. Contest participation and successful submissions were a second metric.
Results - Two workshops were run with concurrent contests. An average of 10% of the student body registered, and 5% attended. Contest submissions were received, and in each case, at least one submission yielded a usable tool. The tools were subsequently used by students in their job search and to conduct research.
Educating & Training STEM IT Professionals Based on the CDIO Standards Evolution
Alexander Zamyatin (Tomsk State University, Russia)
Comprehensive analysis of IEEE 802.11ah for Wireless Communication Networks
Aws Zuheer Yonis, Abdulrahman Tareed and Hamza Dweig (Ninevah University, Iraq)
Track 3 — Full Papers II
The Science and Technology Wing: An Experiment for In-residence STEM Undergraduate Education
Jorge Santiago-Aviles and M'hamed Bokreta (University of Pennsylvania, USA); Geraldine Light (Walden University, USA)
Implementing Blended Learning in K-12 Programming Course: Lesson Design and Student Feedback
Shuhan Zhang (The University of Hong Kong, China); Chunyu Cui (Tencent Education Center for Innovation and Cooperation, China)
Math & Crafts, Educational Activities: 400 Indigenous Kids Learning Math from Engineers and Scientists
Ernesto Vega Janica (IEEE Standards Association, USA)
Note: due to COVID-19 global pandemic, prerecorded and remote classes will be provided.
Asymptotics for Iterating the Lusztig-Vogan Bijection for GL_n on Dominant Weights
Yuxiao Wang (Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science, USA)
In this paper, we will pursue a new direction: we will iterate the algorithm proposed by Achar and Rush. We first present some basic properties of Type A Lusztig-Vogan Bijection and its iteration. Then. we explore the iteration on inputs of small length (2, 3, and 4), and the complexity of the result motivates us to modify the way of measuring the iteration for large inputs. With our new definition, we prove the asymptotic behavior between the number of iterations for input and the length of the input and obtain a recursive formula to compute the slope of the asymptote. Finally, we propose two possible directions to continue the work in our paper. The paper serves as another contribution to understanding the Lusztig-Vogan Bijection from a combinatorial perspective and a first step in understanding the iterative behavior of the Type A Lusztig-Vogan Bijection.
Broadening Participation in Computer Science through Sheltered Instruction Pedagogy
Patricia A Morreale (Kean University, USA); Mayra S Bachrach (1000 Morris Ave, USA); Gail Verdi (Kean University, USA)
On the Generational Behavior of Gaussian Binomial Coefficients at Roots of Unity
Yuxiao Wang and Quanlin Chen (Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science, USA)
We will first present some useful tools in relating the integral q-binomial coefficients with usual binomial coefficients as well as interesting combinatorial objects in their own rite. We will then present our main result, formulating and proving a generational relationship between these integral q-binomial coefficients and usual binomial coefficients mod p. Finally, we will discuss the related combinatorial properties of integral q-binomial coefficients and their cousins with our definition in the first part.
Track 4 — Full Papers III
An Examination of Industry Standards of Success within Penetration Testing Groups
Mollie Ducoste, Rachel Bleiman, Trinh Nguyen and Aunshul Rege (Temple University, USA)
Curriculum to Broaden Participation in Cybersecurity for Middle School Teachers and Students
Laurin Buchanan (Secure Decisions, USA); Lori Scarlatos and Nataliia Telendii (Stony Brook University, USA)
BEAT: Branding and Entrepreneurship of Assistive Technology for Social Good
Zhigang Zhu (The City University of New York, USA); Gerardo Blumenkrantz (The City College of New York, USA); Katherine Olives (Zahn Innovation Center, USA)
Shane Murphy and Mihir Patel (US Military Academy, USA); John R Rogers (USMA, USA)
Taking STEM Enrichment Camps Virtual: Strategies & Reflections from Quick Pivot due to COVID-19
Rebecca Lowe, Adrienne Smith and Christie Prout (Cynosure Consulting, USA); Guenter Maresch, Christopher Bacot and Lura Sapp (North Florida College, USA)
Track 1 — Works-In-Progress I
Understanding Object-Oriented Programming with a Game Engine Platform Transforming from 3D to Text-based coding
Sean Yang, Hyesung Park and Hongsik Choi (Georgia Gwinnett College, USA)
We research active learning methods to determine what teaching methods worked best for our students and keep them in the classes through this project. We conveyed multiple learning methods, including learning by collaboration, flipped class, creating a video game, and combining those teaching methods. We also traced long term effects on students' learning.
Open Research Laboratory for Non-Research Focused Institutions
Michael Brown (University of Maryland Global Campus, USA)
Teaching and Learning about Pendulums in RoboPhysics
Ofer Danino (Technion, Israel); Gideon Kaplan (Ministry of Education & Israel, Israel); Itamar Feldman (Ministry of Education, Israel)
Revolutionizing Engineering for P-12 Schools (REPS)
Tanner J Huffman (The College of New Jersey & Advancing Excellence in P-12 Engineering Education, USA); Greg Strimel (Purdue University, USA); Elizabeth Parry (STEM Education Insights, USA); Malinda Zarske (University of Colorado, Boulder, USA); Rebecca Turner (The College of New Jersey, USA)
A Case Study: Individual Design Enhancement for a Saucepan. Providing Practical Experience Within a Community College Engineering Program
Pamela Bogdan (College Dr & Ocean County College, USA); Derek Alton (Ocean County College, USA)
Track 5 — Workshops
Creating Community Support for Mathematics Literacy
Lauren Siegel (MathHappens Foundation, USA)
Pursuit of a One year multi- pronged Strategy in Libraries
Create theme or concept take home kits that contain a hands on activity and book or mathematics games.
1) Fund in-person learning with a Mathematics help desk open to any member of the community, two days per week serving k-12 students their parents and caregivers and others.
2) Place critical models and exhibits like platonic solids, a unit circle display, and pythagorean puzzles and more in libraries
3) Create, staff and deliver regular family programming on mathematics topics by theme.
4) Advocate for and support with $ schools that reach out to and collaborate with their community to improve public math literacy.
Strategy for Museums
Collaborate with museums to add mathematics connections to labeling and exhibit presentations as well as usual public programs. Sponsor mathematics field trips.
We need more opportunities to learn mathematics, caregivers and parents need to learn and we have to ask ourselves how we can encourage curiosity, enthusiasm to learn and the positive attitudes we will need to make up for lost learning and approach the future with confidence.
Aligning Secondary Programs to the Framework for P-12 Engineering Learning
Tanner J Huffman (The College of New Jersey & Advancing Excellence in P-12 Engineering Education, USA); Greg Strimel (Purdue University, USA); Amy Sabarre (Harrisonburg City Public Schools, USA); Michael Grubbs (Baltimore County Public Schools, USA); Jamie Gurganus (University of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)
Hands-on STEM Learning in Virtual Environments
Montana Steell (Science from Scientists, USA); Gauri Vaishampayan (Director, USA)
Application of the System Development Life Cycle Model (SDLC) to Everyday Tasks
Gennaro Avvento (Gennaro J. Avvento Technical Services LLC & Lockheed Martin (Retired), USA)
This workshop is inspired by our work in improve team performance using lesson learned techniques from industry and adaptation of the SE SDLC concepts to the BEST robotic competitions.
The workshop will consist of three session, each building on each other. Three key sessions initiatives are part of look at demonstrating the value of system engineering and in particular SDLC concepts to educators, and its use in everyday problem. Specifically, these initiatives are:
Session 1. (30 minutes) SE Foundation Workshop
In this workshop we teach the participant about the concept of thinking like systems engineer and to the concepts of systems engineering - in terms that they can understand and relate towards. This solid baseline will be the basis for the introduction of the value of system engineering thinking in everyday classroom activities, not just for use on specific engineering problems. This workshop is based on the concept of teaching the teachers first, and for them to introduce the concepts of systems engineering to their students; The content of the workshop will provide an overarching introduction to systems and systems engineering thinking
Session 2. (30minutes) Application of the SDLC to Practical Problems
In this workshop we will introduce participants to the value of using the SDLC model to address many everyday problems. i.e., Creating a book report, making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, taking a trip. These examples will emphasize the SDLC thinking pattern.
Session 3. (30 minutes) Application of the SDLC towards Selected Problems
This section will discuss how to tailor the SDLC to a unique set of tasks. Each participant will select a set of tasks or small project and tailor the SDLC to fit their needs. The instructor will coach the participants when help is needed. Each participant will walkthrough their adapted SDLC to the session participants.
Presenters; Gennaro J Avvento, is a Lockheed Martin Technical Fellow Emeritus (Retired). He holds an Expert Systems Engineering Professional Certification from the International Council of System Engineers (INCOSE). Mr. Avvento is a graduate of the Air Force Academy. He holds advanced degrees from University of Houston Clear Lake, West Chester University Pennsylvania and Stevens Institute Technology NJ. He is President and CEO of G.J. Avvento Technical Services. LLC
Eric V. Sudano, is a Lockheed Martin Computer System Architect (Retired) He holds a Lockheed Martin Information System Architect Certification. He is a graduate of Rutgers University (1972) and a M.S. Applied Mathematics Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1974). He is President and CEO of E.V. Sudano Systems Solutions LLC.
Practical Physical Computing in these unprecedented times of COVID
Shubhendu Das (SteamWorks)
Poster Session 2
Roy. G. Biv: The Color Matching Application for Artists With Limited Pigments
Nina M Borodin, Sylvan Martin and Ryan Sokolowsky (Reservoir High School, USA)
Covid-19 Case Prediction using Nesting Fitting
Bomin Wei (Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science, China)
We closely examined the deviation of our model prediction and Covid-19 data and realized a second breakout of Covid-19 cases in the data was one of the major reasons. To correct for this, we cut off the fitting at an empirical value, so the fitting would only include the last outbreak. Errors of this treatment was observed and found to be almost linearly correlated to the number of days in a short term. We fitted this error correlation with a linear function and removed its contribution from the model.
The performance of the Nesting Fitting Method on a temporal series dataset is much better than logistic and sliding windows methods, because this model considers more parameters such as region and secondary outbreak. We also compared the prediction of total confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the world with three other methods. The results showed that the prediction using the Nesting Fitting Method is precise and should be suitable for the region where a second outbreak has happened.
In the future, this research could be conducted in the following three aspects. To begin with, we need to explain the meaning of the fitting parameters in terms of case counts development. Furthermore, modification of the model is needed to include prediction of a second breakout. Last but not least, we could consider a more complicated model to first predict parameters from known regions fittings for prediction of case counts in a new region.
Identifying the Impacts of Digital Technologies on Labor Market: A Case Study in the Food Service Industry
Zeyi Ma (Beijing National Day School, China); Lufan Wang (Florida International University, USA)
Wheeled Jumping all-terrain drones with Combustion-driven Semi-active Suspension
Leonard Yu (Princeton International School of Math and Science, USA)
Analyzing Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Autoimmune Diseases
Vidyadhari Vedula (Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science, USA)
Analysis and Construction of a Small International High School's Social Network
Daniella Reyes (Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science, USA)
The Floating Compass: A Demonstration of Electromagnetism and Lenz's Law
Helena Rittenhouse (Princeton University EPICS, USA)
The Floating Compass contains a needle that has been magnetized, then poked through a straw so it floats in a tank of water. A coil of wire is partially submerged in the water so that the middle of the circle of the coil is where the water ends. This coil is then attached to a switch and D4 batteries set up in parallel, creating a circuit with a current running through the coil, forming an electromagnet. Since the needle has been magnetized, it will then either go through the loop or be repelled. By flipping the switch the other way, the current's direction is flipped and the direction of the poles change, causing the needle to either do the opposite, demonstrating Lenz's law.
Having the magnetized needle floating on water stems from a discovery that Francois Arago made in 1822. He noticed that when the horizontal needle of a compass was suspended away from all foreign bodies, it settled at true north much faster than it did when it was not. This being true means that a needle floating in water, which is both away from foreign bodies which would affect oscillations necessary to settle and lacks surface friction and resistance, would come to rest much faster. For this reason, the needle in this experiment is floating (in water).
This project is very easy to replicate- all that is needed is a needle, a bar magnet, a straw, a container filled with water, some wire, D4 batteries, alligator clips, and battery holder packs (which are affordable/ often readily available ). The demonstration is also easily comprehensible, makes it a great project for teachers to use in the classroom to teach the concept of electromagnetism, Lenz's Law, and maybe even the basics of Faraday's law. These are all important branches of physics, and this is an easy way to explain them to people of all ages.
The floating compass itself does not have many modern-day applications, though it can be fun to play with as well as demonstrating a concept that is very widely used. Electromagnetism is used in many electrical appliances to produce magnetic fields, including speakers, motors, generators, hard disks, MRI machines, and many more. Electromagnetism was discovered over 200 years ago and every year, people find new genius ways to utilize it.
Effects of Protein Concentration in Fish Feed on Physical and Chemical Water Pollution
Indeever Madireddy (BASIS Independent Silicon Valley, USA)
This research project determined three things. 1. How protein concentration in fish feed affected the build-up of nitrates 2. How protein concentration in fish feed affected the physical water clarity. 3. What concentration of protein ended up in the feces. Three different fish foods with a minimum protein concentration of 42%, 36%, and 28% were fed to three different species of fish: Pterophyllum Scalare (freshwater angelfish), Cyprinus rubrofuscus (Koi), and Carassius auratus (Tamasaba Goldfish). Each kind of food was fed to each species of fish for five days. At the end of this period, nitrate readings were taken to analyze the chemical pollution of the water.
To analyze the physical pollution of the water, the turbidity of the water was measured. To do this, a sample of fecal matter from each fish species from each type of food was diluted and mixed in water. After the feces settled out, the supernatant was analysed in a spectrophotometer.
To sum everything up, This research experiment determined how the protein concentration of fish food affected both the chemical (nitrate and protein) and physical pollution (turbidity) of aquaria and ponds.
An Exploration Into Electromagnetic Generation
Kritika R Ravichander (8 Sweetbriar Court, USA)
Electricity and magnetism relate to each other, given that both the magnetic and electric fields depend on the movement of electrons. Changes in an electric field creates a magnetic field, and vise versa. This means that if you generate a magnetic field, then you will be able to generate current, which is known as induction. This is shown by Ampere's Law, or âˆ«B.dl = Î¼0I, where B = magnetic field, Î¼0 is the empty's permeability, and I is the path's enclosed electric current. It is also important to note Ohm's Law, or that voltage is the product of current and resistance. Since the strength of the magnetic field is directly related to the current in the wire, the magnitude of the magnetic field would increase with an increase in voltage in the circuit.
Attaching more magnets to an apparatus should increase the strength of the magnetic field, which should increase the amount of current. One can change factors such as the amount of magnets, and measure the products such as the amount of voltage. In order to produce a change in the magnetic field, one can attach the magnets to a spinning apparatus, such as a salad spinner, which would be above the electromagnet attached to a surface. That electromagnet would be attached to wires which would then be attached to a voltage meter to measure the voltage. It is important to keep the material and brand of magnets constant, as well as the electromagnet, materials used to set up the apparatus, and materials for the electric field.
Teachers in school would be able to make their own generator in the classroom using every day household objects. This would put into perspective how electricity is a part of objects around us. They can modify the apparatus as needed to show what factors affect electromagnetic fields and generation.
This project is exploring generators and electromagnetic fields on a small scale. This could be easily applied to a larger scale, including being able to power a house or a whole city. There is also flexibility with materials, meaning that new resources for generators can be explored.
Exposure to Navajo through Game Development: Guess the Number
KayDence N Low Dog (Navajo Preparatory School, USA); Jude J Thomas (Navajo, USA); Kritika R Ravichander (8 Sweetbriar Court, USA)
Our game, Guess the Number, is designed and programmed in Unity, a game development program. The platform works together with C# script(s) so that a random number is generated, and users can enter numbers. The code compares the user input to the random number, and sends messages based on its comparisons. The platform has the capacity to be audiovisual, and both the numbers and messages can be in Navajo and/or English.
Teachers, especially those on reservations, can use this game to effectively expose and teach the Navajo language to students. Playing this game in math classes is also a fun and effective way to introduce the concept of integers being less than or greater than each other. The best time to learn a language is as a child, so it is important this game is incorporated in the elementary levels to increase access. An advantage of using this game in class is that there is little to no academic pressure in learning through a game, as opposed to traditional methods.
This introduces games that represent Navajo culture in a mainstream sense, while exposing children to number systems and counting in a multilingual way. The project also ensures the language is learned while playing through. It gives children examples to be inspired by when creating their own projects, as well.
Navajo Language Preservation AI
Nalanaya N Austin and Tymerah R Chischilly (Navajo Preparatory School, USA)
The DinÃ© language is communicated orally. We would want to develop a game system in which to teach others the Navajo language. Our game would be introduced as an AI. What this system would do is create a conversation with another person using Navajo. This would help the user maintain a conversation in Navajo. It starts with the Navajo greeting, 'YÃ¡'Ã¡t'Ã©Ã©h, _____', and have the user's name inserted. As the conversation prolongs, in between the user and AI, the more Navajo is used and less English will be used. The desired result would be for the user to have a complete conversation in Navajo.
A product made for the success of only the developer lacks when the audience is not addressed. In this case, teachers and students are the aimed users. Our game design is intended to teach. The game is formatted for easy use, accessibility, and straightforwardness. A classroom is the perfect setting for this. Teachers can use the AI for teaching students Navajo. Our AI is aiming to start in a simple conversation including both English and Navajo, and as progressing along, the AI will focus more on Navajo.
Forgotten language is common in Native American communities. People born in present times lack the fluency of speaking Navajo. It is not taught as often, not taught accurately enough, and is slowly disappearing. This game lays out the foundation of teaching Navajo virtually to others for those who would not have the resources otherwise to be taught. As from first person and third person views, the Navajo language is not the only language being neglected. We have Cherokee, Hopi, Crows, and many other respected tribes with their language being abandoned. This AI is a stepping stone in the revitalization of the Navajo language. This will also create a foundation for other tribes to do the same for their language.
Track 6 — Full Papers IV
A new method for disinfection and sterilization of air and objects using an electrified mist
Helena Ai He and Kenneth He (Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science, USA)
If two veils of mist with different polarities (negative and positive) are used, they will attract and continuously discharge in the air. Upon spraying this mist on objects, the mist particles will deposit on the surface of the object, forming a thin water film. Similar to thunderstorms, there will be a large number of negative ions generated, which will adsorb viruses or germs. This is similar to the pulsed electric field sterilization technology in food processing. The mist particles can discharge with electric field strength 10-50kV/cm, pulse width 100μs, and pulse frequency up to 2000Hz. This destroys the cell membrane or virus surface protein structure. Theoretically, my method can also be safely used for the disinfection of the face, hands, and respiratory tract. Currently, two prototypes are being assembled, and a series of experiments will be carried out. Preliminary tests have shown that the average sterilization rate of the electrified mist exceeds 91% efficiency.
Understanding electronics and CT in school - a simplified method for drawing and building electronic circuits for the micro-bit and breadboards
Bjarke K M K Pedersen, Jacob Nielsen and Jørgen Larsen (University of Southern Denmark, Denmark)
Training Workers to Thrive in Future Technology-Driven Environments: A Blueprint
Wenbing Zhao (Cleveland State University, USA)
Retention of Undergraduate Women in Engineering: Key Factors and Interventions
Wenbing Zhao and Xiongyi Liu (Cleveland State University, USA)
Augmented Reality Technology Projects of Tea Culture for China's Secondary Students
Hongyu Chen, Dan Sun, Xue Zhang and Yan Li (Zhejiang University, China)
Track 7 — Full Papers V
Experiences on Incorporating Market Experiments into Energy System Education
Bolun Xu (Columbia University, USA)
Identifying Positive Catalysts in the STEM Career Pipeline
Daniel C Appel (US Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM & AEgis Technologies Group Inc., USA); Ralph Tillinghast (US Army & CCDC Armaments Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, USA); Mo Mansouri (Stevens Institute of Technology, USA)
STEM-Coding Using Drones
Justine Horst (University of Wisconsin-Platteville, USA); Mehdi Roopaei (University of Wisconsin - Platteville, USA)
Adapting a STEM Robotics Program to the Covid-19 Pandemic - an application for Systems Engineering
Neville E. Jacobs (IEEE Baltimore Section, USA); Eric V Sudano (Eric V. Sudano System Solutions LLC, USA); Dwight Bues (SAIC Corp., USA); Gennaro Avvento (Gennaro J. Avvento Technical Services LLC & Lockheed Martin (Retired), USA); Ralph Tillinghast (US Army & CCDC Armaments Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, USA)
Water Footprint at Schools with Arduino Project: STEM and Sustainable Development Goals
Otacilio Antunes Santana (Federal University of Pernambuco & DBR | PROFCIAMB, Brazil); Caina Silva (Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil); Mayara Lima (Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Brazil)
Immersive Technology in Integrating STEM Education
Mehdi Roopaei (University of Wisconsin - Platteville, USA); Emilee Klaas (1 University Plaza, Platteville, WI, USA)
Track 8 — Full Papers VI
A Voice Assistant for IoT Cybersecurity
Jeffrey Chavis (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, USA); Malcolm K Doster, Jr. (Charles Herbert Flowers High School, USA); Michelle S Feng (The Bryn Mawr School & Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, USA); Syeda J Zeeshan (Atholton High School, USA); Samantha Fu (Johns Hopkins University, USA); Elizabeth Aguirre (Johns Hopkins University); Antonio Davila (American University, USA); Kofi Nyarko (Morgan State University, USA); Aaron Kunz, Tracy Herriotts and Daniel P Syed (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, USA); Lanier Watkins (Johns Hopkins University Information Security Institute, USA); Anna Buczak (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, USA); Aviel Rubin (Johns Hopkins University, USA)
pervasive in the home, office, hospital, and many other userfacing
environments (UFEs) as more devices are networked to
improve functionality. However, this explosion of networked
devices in UFEs necessitates that security systems become easier
to help users remain aware of the security of the devices on their
network. Users may not have the skills or the time needed to
continuously monitor networks of increasing complexity using
common open-source tools. Specifically, they are not likely to fully
comprehend the data that those tools present, nor are they likely
to have a working knowledge of the tools needed to monitor and
protect their IoT-enabled network environments. This paper
explores development of a system that uses ambient computing to
facilitate network security monitoring and administration. Our
system is designed to combine machine-learning-enriched device
awareness and dynamic visualization of IoT networks with a
natural language query interface enabled by voice assistants to
greatly simplify the process of providing awareness of the security
state of the network. The voice assistant integrates knowledge of
devices on the network to communicate status and concerns in a
manner that is easily comprehensible. These capabilities will help
to improve the security of UFEs while lowering the associated
cognitive load on the users. This paper outlines continued work in
progress toward building this capability as well as initial results
on the efficacy of the system.
The Go-Light Game as a Tool for Enhancing the Mental Skills Required in STEM Learning
William R English, PE (LLLEI & DCPS, District of Columbia Public Schools, USA)
To facilitate the use of the Go Game for the intended purpose, the game was scaled down from the full-sized 19 x 19 board with 361 stones to smaller, "Go-Light Game" boards of either 8 x 8 or 7 x 7 and a corresponding 64 or 49 stones. The Go-Light game play time, 15 to 30 minutes, is intended to be compatible with high school student schedules and interest spans. Unlike Chess, the Go Game can be scaled down in complexity under the same rules of play. Another adaptation to the high school context was to make the Go Light Game board and stones relatively inexpensive and portable.
Initial experiences with student Go Game play in diverse groups of Washington DC high school students are presented. Initial experiences demonstrate that the game has the power to attract, engage, and stimulate mental and social learning activity in a wide range of high school students in ways beneficial to STEM learning and career advancement.
Confirmation of the general assertion, "the Go Game can be an especially useful tool in developing the mental capabilities to contain and apply STEM knowledge", requires further systematic play research and corresponding student cognitive performance testing.
How Do Students Learn Best? A Case Study of EGR244: Digital Logic Design
Golnoosh Kamali (Johns Hopkins University, USA)
Performance of Modified LMS Control Algorithm for Smart Antennas
Salah Dauga (UD, USA)
Index Terms-Adaptive algorithm, Adaptive filters, least mean squares algorithm, Sign error algorithm, modified least square algorithm.
In this paper, LMS algorithms are used by means of the ability of an adaptive antenna array with a number of elements for interference rejection. The effect on interference rejection of a wide range of factors in an antenna array is observed. As predicted from antenna theory, the predominant lobe and other lobe widths are reduced. The results of Simulation indicate LMS algorithms are efficient.
Use of Rubric and Assessment to Encourage Self-regulated Learning
Abrar Habib, Mona Ismail and Nuha Alzayani (University of Bahrain, Bahrain)
Track 9 — Works-In-Progress II
StartlearnING- an example for cross-domain learning arrangements combining engineering and biology
Markus Reiser, Martin Binder and Holger Weitzel (Weingarten University of Education, Germany)
The starting and finishing points are problems for which engineering solutions are developed. Biological phenomena are used as a source of ideas or concretize the requirements for the technical solution. In the learning arrangements, the learners specify the problem, develop solution ideas and evaluation criteria, select promising approaches based on criteria, implement, test and optimize them. To do this, they must combine biological and technical expertise.
In order to familiarize teachers with the approach of designing according to the startlearnING principle, the project offers in-service training for teachers. In addition, the teachers are supported in their teaching by trained tutors.
The startlearnING project is also active in preparing prospective teachers in science teacher education and offers cooperative seminars in which student teachers and engineering students come together to contribute their skills and perspectives to problem-solving processes. They are trained and qualified in a problem-oriented design approach based on the startlearnING principle.
StartlearnING is scientifically accompanied by the Weingarten University of Education. Among other things, the impact of the learning arrangements on the motivation and biological expertise of the students is being investigated.
Which Definition Shall I Use? A Systematic Review of Computational Thinking Definitions
Fan Xu (The Ohio State University, USA); Shuhan Zhang (The University of Hong Kong, China)
Interdisciplinary STEM Undergraduate Programs and the Effectiveness of Computing Competencies within the Curriculum
Katherine Herbert (1 Normal Ave & Montclair State University, USA); Thomas J Marlowe (Seton Hall University, USA); Kees Leune and Robert M Siegfried (Adelphi University, USA); Jeanette Wilmanski (Saint Peter's University, USA)
Instill Autonomous Driving Technology into Undergraduates via Project-Based Learning
Weitian Wang and Laura Paulino (Montclair State University, USA)
Wide band gap using periodic combined electromagnetic band gap cells
Mohammad El Ghabzouri (Mohammed First University, Faculty of Sciences, Oujda, Morocco)
Adaptive Tests using machine Learning for Math Tutorials: A Work in Progress
Julio Morales and Erick Petersen (Universidad Galileo, Guatemala); Oscar Rodas (Universidad Galileo & Tesla Lab, Guatemala)
Poster Session 3
Zoetrope Abstract by Anish Chaganti
Anish Chaganti (JP Stevens High School, USA)
By: Anish Chaganti
The Zoetrope is a cylindrical shaped device that shows pre - picture animations which provide illusions to the human eye by showing a set of pictures moving as you progressively spin the device creating constant phases of motion. The device was originally named "Doedaleum" by an English mathematician named William George Horner in the 19th century and was modified throughout the years.
The Zoetrope device was so significant because it was the earliest form of recording animations and events through pictures before phones and cameras even existed. The Zoetrope is a spinning cylinder with slits cut vertically in the sides. There is a row of sequential images on the inside of the cylinder The user should look through the cuts and see the pictures move while the cylinder is moving.
It was the earliest form of 3D image available even before phones and cameras were invented where you can see pictures move through an illusion of motion. Cinematography is hugely influenced by the zoetrope due to the zoetrope's ability to create effects through motion presenting closely related images from one to another, paving its way to the future of CGI, graphics, and effects.
In our modern day classroom, teachers can use this to demonstrate rotation and motion to students. It's extremely user - friendly and gives an insight of how a zoetrope operates and how it influences modern day gadgets we use today on a daily basis. Students can see the origination of GIF, animations, and motion pictures and learn how rotation and motion works by testing the zoetrope. A practical demonstration will allow the students to gain a broader understanding of the topic, understand how a zoetrope works, and figure out how to make one as well. The Zoetrope plays an important role when it comes to physics because a lot of explanations/theses of the theories are present in the device allowing the student to learn in an abstract way where they can benefit from, rather than traditional board and marker.
Zoetrope influence laid the foundation of a further improvised technology i.e Praxinoscope discovered in 1877. A Praxinoscope is a modified version of the Zoetrope but it included projection in it where moving images can now be portrayed on a screen . The fascinating part of the Praxinoscope was that it brought images to life without looking into a zoetrope to figure out what is going on. The images were visible to the naked eye and the audience would watch movies through a projector. Without the impact of the Zoetrope, the visual media would not have existed today and we wouldn't have seen the creativity outburst of modern day motion pictures. "Small things lead to big things which can possibly change the world in a matter of time."
Edison High School WiSTEM | FOCUS: Addressing Female Underrepresentation in STEM
Vasumathi Venkat (Edison High School & WiSTEM | FOCUS club, USA); Ishani Kunadharaju (Edison High School & WiSTEM | FOCUS club, USA)
STEM research has the potential to revolutionize a variety of fields, alleviating real-world problems on a global scale. Yet, half of the world's population seems to be excluded from input on the technology that is meant to change their lives. Women are chronically underrepresented in STEM fields due to gender stereotypes and a lack of self-confidence in a male-dominated sector (Ertl, Luttenberger, & Paechter, 2017).
Noticing this gender disparity within their own community, Edison High School STEM Academy juniors Vasumathi Venkat and Ishani Kunadharaju formed a club based on the principles of activism and passion for STEM. Mirroring the initiative at the Rutgers WiSTEM2D Conference, which featured the work and journeys of female professionals in the STEM fields, WiSTEM | FOCUS (Women-in-STEM | Female Opportunities Created Using STEM) was created.
The purpose of this club is to empower girls through STEM. Our club hosts various projects that focus on allowing students, especially future women leaders in STEM, to find more opportunities in STEM fields. Additionally, we aim to introduce the mission and resources of the global WiSTEM (Women-in-STEM) movement to our local community.
This year, our club launched Project I3, an initiative in which our members host informative STEM-based seminars for middle schoolers. These mini-lessons aim to teach middle schoolers niche topics that are not covered in the school curriculum, including the COVID-19 vaccine, CRISPR Cas-9 technology, chemical crime-scene analysis, and lucid dreaming science. Currently, the presentations are being delivered through Zoom due to remote learning. However, more lab-based activities will be conducted as school returns to an in-person format. Throughout the year, our club will incorporate one-day activities, such as Scratch Night to teach coding to elementary schoolers and a STEM Trivia Bowl to encourage connections between middle and high school students. Together, these programs make STEM more accessible to students from a young age.
Simultaneously, our club runs projects to augment the skills of our own members. Some members participated in HackJA 2021, a virtual beginner-level hackathon. After this experience, our club plans to promote interest in computer science through Hackathon 101 sessions for aspiring coders. To motivate our members, we also host female Edison High School alum in STEM fields as guest speakers.
Additionally, our club will join several team-based competitions such as the Thomas Edison Pitch Contest and the iGEM competition. The goal of participating in these competitive activities is to help eliminate the stereotype that STEM and competition is designed only for males (Meyer, Cimpian, & Leslie, 2015).
Navajo Code Talker Game
Nathan A Henry (USA)
Project Description - This game seeks to emulate the Navajo Code talker language in an engaging battle type scenario. This game will preserve the Navajo Language and develop awareness of the historical contributions of the Navajo People.
Game based loosely on Battleship combined with Navajo language. One team tries to gain points by coding with the Navajo Code Talker code and the other tries to stop them. This game teaches parts of the Navajo Language so that the players may gain an understanding of it.
The game is directed toward younger people who aren't that familiar with the Navajo Language. That way it may preserve the language by teaching it to a younger generation.
The future of this project could be to expand the game to include other indigenous languages that need preservation.
"Data Shows Huge Reduction in DinÃ© Speakers." Navajo Times, Navajo Times Publishing, 16 Nov. 2017, navajotimes.com/reznews/data-shows-huge-reduction-in-dine-speakers/#:~: text=While%20the%20Navajo%20language%20has%207, 600%20Navajoonly%20speakers, the%20Office%20of%20Standards, %20Curriculum%20and%20Assessment%20Development.
Teaching the Navajo Language Through a Coded Game
Yilnazbah R Wauneka-Yellowhorse (414 Julie Dr & BlueCross BlueShield, USA); Jordyn Begay and Jaci Hood (Navajo Preparatory School, USA); Richard J Wegmann (USA); Alana E Smith (Navajo Preparatory School, USA)
To prevent the percentage of Navajo speakers from rapidly decreasing and possibly being forgotten within the next few decades, we've designed and coded a math puzzle which incorporates elements of Native American culture and Navajo language. The puzzle would help teach Navajo counting among not only Native American youth, but also others interested in learning the Navajo language.
This game can be used competitively in classrooms, as a fun, challenging family activity, or individually as a way to learn another language and see improvements within yourself. Our goal is to preserve the Navajo language within the Navajo Nation as well as extending the language to others outside the community.
The application of precision medicine for diabetes treatment
Ziqi Ma (Beijing Royal School, China)
Franklin's Bells: Converting Electrical Energy Into Continuous Mechanical Motion
Stella C Firmenich (Engineering Projects In Community Service, Princeton University & Stuart Country Day School of the Sacred Heart, USA)
How Franklin's Bells works is that when a positive charge is brought to one of the vessels, it attracts the negatively charged clapper. The clapper hits the vessel and then absorbs that charge and gets repelled. The now positively charged clapper gets attracted to the negatively charged vessel and the process repeats. It repeats until the charge has evened out again. The original Franklin's Bells used an electrical rod for the electrical current and the setup rang during thunderstorms. Occasionally it would ring without thunder, hinting at electrical charges in the air.
Franklin's Bells is also easily replicated using two aluminum cans, a soda tab, some string, a straw, a plastic lid, and an electrical source. The electrical source can be from rubbing a pvc pipe with wool or any other method to get static electricity. Place one aluminum can so it rests on top of the plastic lid and then place the other can about 1 Â½ inches away from it. Tie a soda tab to the end of the string. Take the string and tie it around the middle of the straw and balance the straw between the two cans so the tab rests between the cans. To get the tab moving, bring an electrical source near one can. For example, rub a pvc pipe with wool to collect static electricity and then bring the pipe to a can.
Teachers can use this demonstration in their classroom to show how electrical energy can be converted into a continuous mechanical energy. It is a fun experiment that is low cost, yet highly effective, and can easily be replicated by every student in the class.
I have been recreating this experiment and researching it for three months. The opportunity to do it was provided by a program run by Professor Littman at Princeton University called Engineering Projects In Community Service (EPICS). The purpose of EPICS is to recreate historical devices in electromagnetism and share these projects with the community by presenting them at local libraries, schools, and other events.
A Design of the Extrusion System for Chocolate 3D Printing
Hong Jiang (Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science, China)
However, there are problems with the current chocolate printers that need to improve to make them popular. The first problem is that price is too high for individual users and small stores. Most people could not afford a printer that is about several thousand dollars, not to mention the expensive printer-specific material. Another problem is the ability of the printer. Some printers can only produce few default shapes set by the producer, so users do not have much freedom to print the shapes they want. This limits the ability that is supposed to be the biggest advantage of the 3D printer. And one of the biggest weaknesses of the current chocolate 3D printers is that they cannot perform tempering, a critical process in chocolate production. Without chocolate tempering, the final product chocolate will not have a smooth, glossy texture that is preferred for desserts. So the printer cannot be used for high-end dessert production.
The goal of this research is meant to design an extrusion system of the chocolate printer to solve these problems mentioned above. The goal of the printer is that it can take chocolate chips, temper the chocolate, extrude it out and form shape according to the design. It is designed to be constructed with cheap materials while having accurate control of temperature during the printing process. This research is planned to last for two years long and now I am halfway through the first year. My current plan is to work on a commercial 3D printer and replace its extrusion system with my design. The general frame of the printer is kept because that is not the focus of this research. Right now, I have finished my design of the extruder in 3D models and start building and testing prototypes. In future research, I would expect to have the extrusion system assembled on the 3D printer and investigating the optimal working condition for chocolate printing.
Static Straw Spinner
Gabriel Saintil (The Pingry School Basking Ridge, USA); Hunter Jushchuk (Rutgers Preparatory, USA)
How It works
When rubbed with wool the two straws end up with the same charges. When two objects have the same charge such as two positive charges or two negative charges they repel each other. This causes the straw you are holding to push the straw on the cup.
How teachers use this in the class room
This experiment shows static electricity in its simplest form, and how two of the same charges push against each other.
How this could be used in the future
Right now static electricity is used for electrostatic generators. Because movement is in a lot of things we do, static electricity could be something we use to power a lot of our items in our daily lives.
High School STEM Clubs In A Virtual World
Anastasia A Ibrahim (Edison High School & iSTEM Club, USA); Sunrit Panda (Edison High School & TEDxEdisonHighSchool, USA); Gunjan Adya (Edison High School & iSTEM Club, USA)
Edison High School's iSTEM Club faced numerous challenges in the summer leading up to the 2020-2021 school year. Club funding was cut due to school budget restructuring. All club recruitment events such as Freshman Orientation and the Club Fair had been canceled. Despite these challenges, club attendance increased during virtual meetings. This improvement can be attributed to changes in meeting style. Instead of appealing to students with opportunities and events, the officers used their large personalities to create a welcoming virtual community. Thus, the key to maintaining a virtual STEM club is energetic, personable meetings that keep students coming back for more.
iSTEM Club's officers looked to the virtual outreach events of universities as inspiration. Events were brainstormed with a focus on mental health, career development, community outreach. The iSTEM club continued to offer mentorship to students applying to summer programs in STEM research as this process only became more difficult virtually. Additionally, the iSTEM club taught the basics of HTML and web design in a three-part seminar series. These seminars doubled as training for teaching aides who will participate in future HTML workshops for elementary schoolers, engaging both elementary and high school students during remote learning. Finally, iSTEM club created a College, Career, and Mental Health seminar series addressing topics such as creating a resume, finding research opportunities, exploring career fields, self-care, time management, applying to college, etc.
These unique seminar topics allow club members to make use of free-time during online learning and further strengthens the welcoming community that attracts new members. For example, the HTML seminars may inspire a student to start a personal coding project. That student would then feel comfortable asking the officers for guidance. Furthermore, iSTEM Club officers decide which seminars to lead, developing valuable collaboration, public speaking and leadership skills.
Finally, the pandemic allows the time to plan for in-person events after widespread vaccination. ISTEM club plans to create an Apple Institutional Developer Account to teach Swift and publish apps to the App store. Most excitingly, the club received a $4,250 grant from the IEEE-in-epics program to alleviate a water crisis in Rural India.
A Model For The Future:
Evidently, iSTEM Club has seen much success while adjusting to the online environment. This begs the question: Can high school STEM clubs go virtual or hybrid permanently? The evidence says yes. Savvy management of a virtual club yields lower costs, greater attendance, and a more impactful experience. Virtual seminars have greater reach and can be recorded for future use. Virtual community outreach teaches club members how to work efficiently and collaboratively in a virtual environment, an important skill moving forward. Finally, in-person events can be coordinated once safe to teach hands-on skills. Combining virtual community-building meetings and seminars with in-person skill-building events, iSTEM Club is a model for the high school club of the future.
TEDxEdisonHighSchool: A Template For Virtual TEDx Conferences
Sunrit Panda, Neoma A Chowdhury and Aditi Deshmukh (Edison High School & TEDxEdisonHighSchool, USA)
TEDx talks are brief and powerful. Limited to eighteen minutes, these talks are a concise glimpse into the speaker's background and topic. Adding to the rigorous TEDx speaker guidelines (TED Conferences LLC), the TEDxEdisonHighSchool curation teams have devised three techniques for curating TEDx talks in a virtual world.
Number one: the throughline is a pithy, memorable statement that encapsulates the point of the talk. In particular, Amy Cuddy's and Melissa Marshall's TED talks inspired this idea (Marshall, 2012, Cuddy 2012). The impactful throughline stimulates attendees' interest, especially as 'Zoom fatigue' reduces attention span for virtual events.
Number two: a three-meeting curation timeline allows for the efficient curation of high-quality talks. This small time commitment appeals to busy professionals and academics who have limited time for speaking appointments. Employing this timeline, three independent curation teams have planned and executed an eighteen-speaker TEDxEdisonHighSchool conference in only two months, with a three hour per week time commitment.
Number three: collaborative technology such as Google Documents, Calendly, and Miro facilitates efficient, on-time meetings. Calendly allows multiple teams to centrally schedule speaker meetings. Finally, a series of templates streamlines the speaker invitation and talk outlining process.
Taking Advantage Of The Virtual Climate:
Hosting a virtual TEDx conference lowers costs and expands reach. Normally, TEDx conferences are immense ordeals involving caterers, venues, stage designers, sponsors, and more (TED Conferences LLC). Additionally, TEDx limits most organizers to one conference in a twelve-month period with a maximum of one hundred attendees. However, a virtual conference only requires an online meeting platform and allows for multiple conferences in a single twelve-month period without the one hundred attendee limit. For example, in addition to the one conference per year afforded by a TEDx license, TEDCountdown and TEDWomen allowed TEDx licensees to host their own offshoot conferences. Finally, there are no geographic limits to speakers.
Next, the Zoom video conferencing service allows for further enhancements of TEDx events. Zoom is unique in having one of the most seamless, high-quality screen sharing features. Hence, live speakers can be supplemented by showing pre-recorded talks on the TED website. Furthermore, small-group discussions, called TEDxCircles, can be incorporated through Zoom breakout rooms. These allow for intimate conversations that delve deeper into the speakers' background and topic. Finally, Zoom's attendee limits can be bypassed by streaming live to Facebook or Youtube, further increasing the event's reach.
Impact On Online Learning:
A virtual TEDx conference addresses the need for "diversity in [a student's] learning experience" (Gillett-Swan, 2017). TEDx talks break up the monotony of lectures with its unique, fast-paced structure. And, by involving features such as TEDxCircles small-group discussions, students can learn soft skills such as public speaking, and networking. For example, the TEDxEdisonHighSchool Countdown conference shone a new light on climate change. Speakers from the NJ Sierra Club and Columbia University discussed novel viewpoints such as climate change youth outreach. When combined with online classes and assignments, TEDx conferences can enrich the learning experience for an otherwise isolated student.
Enhancing Chess Engine with a Personalized Quantitative Database
Jiasen Liu (Princeton International School of Math and Science, China)
Poster Session 4
Using hashing to improve efficiency in cross-image duplicate detection in research publications
Tongyu Lu (Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science, China)
Cases of research misconduct had increasingly exhibited themselves through the
duplicate figures that they contain; Bik et al.  examined over 20
thousand biomedical published papers and found that 3.8% had inappropriate
duplicate figures, with this percentage on the rise in recent years.
Currently, the identification of figure duplicates is mainly carried out by
human reviewers; the process is slow and requires specialized training. There
have been attempts to develop large-scale screening tools for image
duplicates, but they are either unpublished  or do not perform very well.
There exists prior research in the field of copy-move forgery detection. These
deal with duplicate regions on a single image, but the methods could be
modified and applied to cross-image matching, as we intend to. However,
cross-image matching implies a much larger feature set to match between, and
feature matching is currently the slowest step in the process .
Currently, there are two directions to address this problem. One is to use
keypoint-based features, such as SIFT, to decrease the size of the feature
set. The other is to apply hashing to the features and use hash lookup to
quickly eliminate those features that definitely don't match; Bayram et al.
 demonstrates that using bloom filters in place of traditional methods
increased the matching speed at some loss of result accuracy.
We plan to devise a method that applies hashing to matching SIFT features in
order to reliably perform faster than prior methods on cross-image matching in
large biomedical image sets. We expect the resulting method to perform faster
than current methods with little to no loss of accuracy.
1. Bik, E. M., Casadevall, A., Fang, F. C., The Prevalence of Inappropriate
Image Duplication in Biomedical Research Publications. _mBio_ 7(3),
e00809-16 (2016). doi:10.1128/mBio.00809-16
2. Acuna, D. E., Brookes, P. S., Kording, K. P., Bioscience-scale automated
detection of figure element reuse. preprint on _bioRxiv_ (2017).
3. Christlein, V., Riess, C., Jordan, J., Riess, C., Angelopoulou, E., An
Evaluation of Popular Copy-Move Forgery Detection Approaches. _IEEE Trans.
Inf. Forensics Secur._ 7(6), 1841-1854 (2012).
4. Bayram, S., Taha Sencar, H., Memon, N., An efficient and robust method for
detecting copy-move forgery. _2009 IEEE International Conference on
Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing_. doi:10.1109/icassp.2009.4959768
Golden Ratio Lettuce
Bela Sameep Sanghavi (1312 Ashton Falls Drive & O'Fallon Township High School, USA)
Over a 2-week time span, this experiment will show how using the golden ratio of peat moss to soil will affect lettuce growth. In the experiment, 1 part peat moss and 1.6 parts soil will be mixed in a pot, producing the "golden ratio soil". Another pot will contain 1 part peat moss and 1 part soil. The plants will be daily monitored for any growth.
Interactive At-Home Learning
Anishi R Desai (William Fremd Highschool & None, USA)
Fun of Physics
Kayla Desai (Fremd, USA)
Consumer Barriers For The Adoption Of Climate Friendly Packaging In Mercer County
Inara D Jain (Princeton High School, USA)
Application for Individualized Learning Using Artifical Intelligence
Anant Gupta (Great Neck South Middle School, USA)
- Anant Gupta
Smart Education Supply Preparedness
Adrik Ray (Huber Street Elementary School, USA)
We have lots of things to remember for school in addition to our studies. Every day, we have to remember to check our school supplies. If we forget, we may have to scramble for our school supplies or to get them ready for use during classes. The supplies may also be out of place for various other reasons. Sometimes parents, siblings or friends borrow our supplies and forget to return. Sometimes we go on a vacation and the night before school, we realize our supplies are not in place. We may have to put reminders for this repetitive and mundane task to check our supplies every day.
The above problem made me think that there got to be some way in today's day and age to take care of this repetitive but important task in a smarter way. I have contemplated a design consisting of a smart organized supply box which will store different types of supplies with slots designated for same. The box will provide personalization options with inputs such as age and other optional configurations about the user of the box, making it usable for students of different ages. The intelligent box will use IoT visual sensors placed inside with adequate lighting, to capture images of supplies. The sensors interface with a circuit, that takes inputs from the sensors and detects scenarios like inadequate shape of items (blunt pencil, broken pencil etc.), lack of items (missing erasers, specific colors etc.), misplaced items etc. Once detected, the circuit passes appropriate programmed commands to connected voice control devices like Amazon Alexa, Google Home, Apple Siri etc. These devices would take the commands and send voice alerts and/or send alerts on the smart phones for the students or parents to replenish and/or ready specific supply items, if needed. Additionally, the box can generate insights for parents to monitor and analyze consumption habits of the students over time; and the degree to which they are organized in their daily lives. This will enable parents to work with the students to achieve the habits, lifestyle and goals they desire. Finally, automating these regular tasks will improve productivity, save time and make our school life much easier and efficient - after all, time is something the smart people say, cannot be bought with money.
Some of the changes in our lives necessitated by the Covid-19 pandemic will have lasting impacts. Living our daily lives smartly and efficiently for a better school-life balance certainly will be one of them, and my paper contributes to this goal.
Lego Robot for Guiding the Blind
Rishi Balaji (Gates Elementary School, USA)
- It does not need to be fed food constantly
- There is no need to take it to the vet
- Its sources of power such as batteries might need to be changed constantly depending on how much it gets used every day
Arden Upadya (Morristown Beard School, USA)
Design and Testing of Solar Power Heating
Victor I Robila (Hunter College High School, USA)
A Review of the Relationship Between Diabetes and Diabetic Amputations in the United States: An Expensive, Chronic but Preventable Condition
Gabrielle Rose Kiewe (Schechter School of Long Island, USA); Hugh Herr (MIT-Harvard, USA); Francesca B Riccio-Ackerman, Aaron Jaeger and Daniel Levine (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)
Most studies look into the cost of surgery and prosthetics, which is easily tens of thousands of dollars. However, previously completed studies have not looked into the indirect costs and productivity losses, which excludes the costs on the family and society as a whole. Diabetes contributes to $237 billion in annual costs, which makes it the most expensive chronic disease in the U.S. So much so, that one in every four dollars spent on healthcare goes toward diabetes. Without understanding the complete cost of illness, that money can not be spent effectively to help those with diabetic amputations.
Since the cost and time commitment of maintenance for diabetes is very expensive, there's a natural relationship between low socioeconomic areas and high rates of untreated or undertreated diabetes. Consequently, these areas also face high rates of diabetic amputations; studies show that certain low-income neighborhoods have 10 times higher amputation rates compared to their high-income counterparts, as a result of lower resources, medical infrastructure, financial support, which are important factors in diabetes management and living with an amputation. Racial disparities are another factor of amputation. Black Americans are under-represented in treatments that would prevent or delay preventable limb loss and over-represented in amputation surgeries. Both economic and racial disparities together create centers of extremely high amputation rates, which is shown by geographic clustering of diabetes and amputation rates.
Diabetic amputation is considered one of the most preventable chronic conditions. Studies have shown that 75 percent of diabetic amputations could have been prevented through education, earlier identification, and treatment of ulcers. Experts suggest more than 80,000 toe, foot, and lower-limb amputations could have been prevented with better diabetic control.
As the prevalence of diabetes grows, it is important to document and better understand rates of diabetic amputations, how they come about, and best practices for preventing them. Most studies providing data regarding diabetic amputations are outdated and need to be updated regularly to inform policy-makers how to allocate resources for prevention. Thus, areas of work that specifically need to be highlighted are amputation prevention and health equity.
Poster Session 5
Roshan S Natarajan (Whittle School and Studios, USA)
"We have found that the simplest form of apparatus for producing the effect consists of a plane mirror of flexible material against the back of which the speaker's voice is directed. Under the action of the voice the mirror becomes alternately convex and concave and thus alternately scatters and condenses the light."
In this quote Bell is describing the transmitter which is a mirror that is reflecting the sunlight to the receiver which is narrowed through a dark tube and onto a solar panel. This solar panel is then connected to an amplifier which then converts the light waves to the sound waves ultimately producing the sound that is played behind the mirror.
22 AWG Wire
Plastic Water Bottle
Put together (or buy) an audio amplifier that will be used to convert the light beams into sound waves.
Attach the speaker to the audio amplifier.
Place the capacitor on the positive terminal of the amplifier which will connect to the positive side of the solar module.
Create a tube out of cardboard or some other material. Then tape on the solar modules to the end of the tube(make sure that there is no sunlight present in the tube).
Create a transmitter by using a reflective object that will direct the sunlight towards the cardboard tube(receiver).
Then attach a speaker or another mode of audio to the back of the reflective object (these sound waves will then be carried on a light beam and transmitted to the receiver).
Adjust the transmitter until the sunlight is reflected down the tube and is transmitted to the receiver.
The photophone uses light waves to transmit sound over a certain area and time. This can be applied on a large scale. A future application can be an intergalactic photophone in which a person can transmit light waves across our solar system and be able to communicate with people back on earth. This can be tested on the ISS as well as on the moon and if there is ever a colony on mars this would be a fast way of communication. It would be an intergalactic photophone.
The Science Behind Flappy Bird
Steven S Santos (Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, USA)
Flappy Bird is a mobile game originally developed by Dong Nguyen, a Vietnamese videogame programmer. Flappy Bird is a side scrolling game, like the popular game Super Mario Brothers, where the player controls a bird in a 2D environment. Unlike Mario, the player only has control over the bird's vertical movement. The main goal is for the bird to travel as far as it can without hitting any green pipes. While the goal and controls are simple the game becomes increasingly difficult and frantic as the bird moves faster the farther it travels.
Python is a computer programming language used for many software applications and can be used to create video games on the internet when paired with tools such as Python Arcade. Flappy Bird is one of the games that can be created using Python, and when coded correctly the game can be an almost perfect version of Flappy Bird. During the coding process we created a game design plan with two to three week intervals for our Flappy Bird project. The beginning stages involved establishing a solid plan, sectioning off code, and setting up a skeleton by putting down basic coding. The later stages involved adding on to the skeleton by putting more advanced code down, adding secondary items such as sprites, coloring, and lighting, and adding the finishing touches to the game.
We were able to fully recreate Flappy Bird in python as well as add a few of our own ideas to the game by following our game design plan. While we were able to find the original game's assets, we had to identify most of the original logic by visually watching the game being played, which was more difficult than expected. For our original ideas, we added a second chance feature that allows players to continue after dying if they solve a special challenge. A video will be made available of our recreation of Flappy Bird during the poster presentation and the code will be available on GitHub.
Exploring ethics in IoT-based smart cities
Michelle S Feng (The Bryn Mawr School & Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, USA); Jeffrey Chavis (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, USA)
The Math Behind Piano Chords
Zuko A Ranganathan (Hart Magnet School, Stamford CT, USA)
IoT & Smart Cities: "Smartainability"
Malcolm K Doster, Jr. (Charles Herbert Flowers High School, USA); Jeffrey Chavis (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, USA)
The Fibonacci Sequence and The Golden Ratio in Math and Music
Nicole E Vassilev (Princeton High School, USA)
A Fibonacci sequence consists of a list of numbers beginning with 0 and 1, in which each number is the sum of the two previous numbers in the sequence. For example, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 are the first numbers in the Fibonacci sequence, because 0+1=1, 1+1=2, 1+2=3, and 2+3=5. This pattern applies to any number in a Fibonacci sequence. The ratio of two fibonacci numbers that are one next to each other will always be extremely close to 1.618, the "golden ratio." 1.618 is also known as "phi'' which originates from the 21st letter in the Greek alphabet Î¦. My research will look into the application of the Fibonacci sequence and the golden ratio in music specifically. On a foundational level, the Fibonacci sequence can be observed within a scale. The 5th note in a scale is the most important, and it happens to be the 8th note in an octave, which consists of 13 notes. Upon the division of 8 by 13, the rounded result is 0.615, a number practically identical to the golden ratio. It's important to note that 5, 8, and 13 are all also numbers in the Fibonacci sequence. Beyond this foundational level, the Fibonacci sequence and golden ratio play a more widespread role in the composition of large musical works, such as in the first movement of a piece by Hungarian composer BÃ©la BartÃ³k. His piece, Music For Strings, Percussions and Celesta, is divided into two parts. Part one has 55 measures, and part two has 34 measures. When those numbers are divided, you get 1.6176, which when rounded, is 1.618 (the golden ratio). The Fibonacci sequence also makes appearances in rhythm, such as in the complex Konnakol rhythm by B.C Manjunath, which uses the first eight numbers of the Fibonacci sequence as its basis. My research will explore these occurrences of the Fibonacci sequence and the golden ratio in musical construction in order to more clearly demonstrate the parallels between music and math.
Sensitivity of Voter Turnouts in Presidential Elections - A Retrospective Analysis
Kavin S Sankar (Enloe High School, USA)
Towards this, I have analyzed the 2016 election in R to understand which states had the closest elections. My analysis of percentage difference between the 2 parties' votes at national scale shows the strategies by both parties at the county level. The republicans campaigned for the more rural areas and won many more counties than the democrats in key battleground states. On the contrary, the democrats campaigned primarily in urban and populous areas, thereby winning the popular vote but not the Electoral College. Another big factor behind the republicans' win was that the republicans won most of the battleground states (Michigan, Florida, and North Carolina) by a close margin. All of these states had the closest margins in 2016 with Michigan being the closest state that year. Out of the top 10 closest state electoral colleges the republicans won 6 of them (102 electoral colleges) and the democrats only won 4 of them (23 electoral colleges). This analysis shows how important it is to focus campaigning in key counties relevant to their base and also sway independents towards their candidates.
I intend on continuing this analysis of voter sensitivity by going through all of the elections in the 2000s. I plan to develop an analysis interface which can take user inputs to analyze the past elections. These user inputs can be a list of past close state Electoral College outcomes or it can be a change in voter turnout indicated by percentage increase/decrease towards a party in key battleground states. I also intend to analyze correlation patterns between voter turnouts and key socio-economic indicators (e.g., employment, economy and crisis). This way we can analyze the change of the close battleground states and use recent events to determine what is having the biggest impact on voter sensitivity.
(Mentor: Dr. Brian Reich, Dept. of Statistics)
Smart City Overview
Syeda J Zeeshan (Atholton High School, USA); Jeffrey Chavis (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, USA)
Diagnosing Skin Cancer Using Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
Riya J. Roy (Ridge High School, USA)